On August 12, 1480, the Martyrs of Otranto were beheaded. The Ottomans ordered 800 Christians to convert to Islam following the successful siege of Otranto. The massacre happened when the Christian men refused to convert. Such barbarity is a ghost from the past but brings up a worthy question-what is the state of religious freedom in America today? The Do No Harm Act provides insights.
The Sedition Act
On this day, July 14, in 1798 the Sedition Act was signed into law by President John Adams. The Sedition Act made it illegal for Americans to write in the form of publications, such as news organizations, or utter phrases in public that were deemed to be a fabrication or ‘malicious’ against the government or sitting administration. The repercussions were unmistakable.
There are two prevailing schools of thought in analyzing history. The first is the ‘great man’ theory, in which great men such as Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte drive history. The second school of thought is that history is inspired by societal trends and circumstances, not merely the actions of one man. This essay seeks to examine Benito Mussolini and try to understand if his rise to power was a product of circumstance or made possible by his efforts.
James K. Polk, the 11th President of the United States, mastered the art of diplomacy and foreign policy. Polk successfully used diplomacy to situate the United States as the dominant power in North America by securing the northern border with the British Empire as well as engineering a war with Mexico to acquire the American southwest.
Asia had a very different political and economic landscape in the 1930s before the Second Sino-Japanese War. Due to the Xinhai Revolution in 1911, the Qing Dynasty collapsed into several weak states. This was a far cry from the unified superstate that dominates Asia today.